HIV prevention

The main measure to prevent the spread of HIV is teaching people skills are less dangerous in terms of HIV transmission behavior. Some groups, distinguished by certain peculiarities of behavior or lifestyle, may be exposed to relatively higher risk of HIV infection. To protect oneself from HIV infection can knowing the properties of the virus, its transmission and prevention.

The little virus is resistant to the active factors of the external environment, for example at a temperature of 56°C inactivated within half an hour, at 100°C for 1-2 minutes. At the same time in a frozen state HIV may persist for several years.

In dried blood on needles and syringes, as well as in solutions of drugs can retain its activity for up to 3 weeks or more (at room temperature), and in some cases, probably up to a month, which is one of the most important factors contributing to its spread among injecting drug users.

In the presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the risk of HIV transmission during sexual intercourse increases by 2-5 times.

The presence of sexually transmitted infections, accompanied by the emergence of open sores (e.g., herpes), is especially dangerous.

If there is no contact with blood, semen, vaginal secretion, the possibility of HIV infection is excluded.

There are several ways of HIV transmission:

  • unprotected (without a condom) penetrative sexual contact;
  • joint or reuse syringes, needles and other injecting equipment, the use of non-sterile equipment for tattoos and piercing, use of other people's shaving set, toothbrush holder with remnants of blood;
  • during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding from an HIV-infected mother to child.

HIV is not transmitted through:

  • insect bites;
  • the hugs, shaking hands;
  • sharing of bath, bath, pool, toilet;
  • sharing linens, kitchenware and other household items;
  • sneezing and coughing;
  • friendly kisses;
  • safe sex.

Prevention of sexual transmission of HIV

Condoms guaranteed quality are the only products currently available to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.

Consistent condom use during sexual contacts is currently the most reliable method of preventing infection how to homosexual and heterosexual.

During anal sex acts in which a condom is subjected to more mechanical impact, increasing the risk of rupture, it is recommended to use a more durable (often specially marked) condoms and lubricants (lubricants).

To reduce the risk of HIV infection by parenteral (through the blood):

  • using each drug new, previously no one used syringe and needle, if it is impossible to use only their "personal" syringe and needle, which is no longer used;
  • using the introduction of the solution which was prepared in the conditions excluding contact with blood of another person;
  • a boiling solution of the drug directly to the introduction, not washing your individual syringe in one capacity syringes which were used by others.

Prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the genital organs

Prevention of infection by sexually transmitted infections, and other inflammatory diseases of sexual sphere, leads to a decrease in the number of inflammatory processes in the genital organs, increasing the risk of HIV transmission.

Prevention of STI is carried out by the methods of education that has the same orientation as the HIV prevention: reducing the number of partners and condom use. As control measures, aimed at the source of infection for many infections, genital effectively etiotropic treatment, leading to the rehabilitation of the infected person.

Systematic treatment of infectious lesions of the genitals, providing the frequency and intensity of inflammatory processes also potentially reduces the risk of HIV transmission.